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Mohandas Gandhi Quotes

Saturday, August 29, 2009

upload easy (file sharing made easy)

http://s4ve.as

What is s4ve.as?
s4ve.as is an easy way to quickly share any file, anywhere, with anyone. Never worry about email attachment limits or FTP to quickly send large files to colleagues, friends and family.

How do I know when my link will expire?
Your link will redirect you to the file's landing page where you can see what date/time the link will expire.

think positive

Friday, August 28, 2009

how to map a network drive


think positive

how to make own web server


think positive

Thursday, August 27, 2009

Flickr tops TIME's list of Best 50 Websites of 2009

The hottest thing on the Internet is not social networking websites like Facebook and Twitter, but Flickr-the popular photo-sharing portal - and the proof is: it has topped TIME's list of the best 50 websites this year.

One of the noticeable trends in this year's list, which was released this week, was on-demand video services, like YouTube, Vimeo and US services Hulu and Netflix.

However, the top two in the list were related to photographs, with California Coastline following Flickr at the second spot.

Third in the list was bookmark website Delicious, while community weblog Metafilter stood at the fourth place.

Popurls, the mashup of the web's most visited social news sites and portals, grabbed the fifth spot in the list.

Twitter ranked sixth and Facebook came 31st in the list, while YouTube and Hulu came at 12th and 14th place in the list.

TIME's list of 50 Best Websites of 2009 is:. Flickr

2. California Coastline

3. Delicious

4. Metafilter

5. popurls

6. Twitter

7. Skype

8. Boing Boing

9. Academic Earth

10. OpenTable

11. Google

12. YouTube

13. Wolfram|Alpha

14. Hulu

15. Vimeo

16. Fora TV

17. Craiglook

18. Shop Goodwill

19. Amazon

20. Kayak

21. Netflix

22. Etsy

23. PropertyShark.com

24. Redfin

25. Wikipedia

26. Internet Archive

27. Kiva

28. ConsumerSearch

29. Metacritic

30. Pollster

31. Facebook

32. Pandora and Last.fm

33. Musicovery

34. Spotify

35. Supercook

36. Yelp

37. Visuwords

38. CouchSurfing

39. BabyNameWizard.com's NameVoyager

40. Mint

41. TripIt

42. Aardvark

43. drop.io

44. Issuu

45. Photosynth

46. OMGPOP

47. WorldWideTelescope

48. Fonolo

49. Get High Now

50. Know Your Meme (ANI)

SOURCE.YAHOONEWS

Google adds translation to Docs

Google continues to move language translation into more and more of its products. On Thursday, it became a feature of Google Docs, letting anyone do an on-the-spot translation into one of 42 languages.

The new feature, tucked away in a settings menu, has the smarts to automatically detect in which language the original document is written. It then opens the translated version in a new window, allowing you to compare and contrast the two side by side, more easily checking whether the translation has bungled any words or phrasing.

This new version can then either replace the original or be saved as a copy, though Google makes no visual indication in your document source list that its contents are in another language.

Over the last six months, Google has been quite busy adding translation to its other products, including its Gmail and Friend Connect services.

In Gmail's case, users can translate entire messages into one of Google Translate's supported languages; however, this feature must first be enabled in Gmail's Labs settings menu.

The translation implementation in Friend Connect is a little more interesting, as it's able to unify the language on any comment thread, regardless of how many languages in which the user comments are written.

source.news.cnet
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Burglars using Facebook, Twitter to find targets-report

Facebook users enthusing about an upcoming holiday or a recently purchased high-tech gadget may not just be telling their friends but also potential burglars, warns an insurance company.

A survey of 2,092 social media users by British-based Legal & General found nearly four in ten, or 38 percent, of people using social networking sites like Facebook or Twitter post details about holiday plans and 33 percent details of a weekend away.

"Coupled with the finding that an alarmingly high proportion of users are prepared to be 'friends' online with people they don't really know, this presents a serious risk to the security of people's home and contents," said the insurer.

In a report called "The Digital Criminal," Legal & General said people used social media sites to connect with people who were essentially strangers, which could provide potential thieves with vital, personal information.

To test how readily people accepted 'friends' online, Legal & General's survey, conducted by European market researcher Opinion Matters, involved sending out 100 'friend' or 'follow' requests to strangers selected at random.

Of those 13 percent were accepted on Facebook and 92 percent on Twitter -- without any checks.

But despite these new 'friends,' the survey found that nearly two-thirds, or 64 percent, of 16-24 year olds shared their holiday plans, with younger users the most likely to give away information about their whereabouts.

Men were found to be quite relaxed about giving personal information online, with 13 percent including their mobile number on their profile compared with 7 percent of women. Nine percent of men also posted their address compared to 4 percent of women.

"This reaction could result in a complete stranger potentially being able to learn about a person's interests, location and movements in and out of their home," said Legal & General.

Reformed burglar Michael Fraser, who appears in BBC's "Beat The Burglar" series and helped Legal & General prepare the report, said this kind of information was being used by professional burglars to establish a list of targets.

As well as information about trips away, people were posting party photos showing the interiors of homes and also chatting about their cool new purchases and presents.

"I call it "Internet shopping for burglars." It is incredibly easy to use social networking sites to target people, and then scope out more information on their actual home ... all from the comfort of the sofa," said Fraser in a statement.

"There is absolutely no doubt in my mind that burglars are using social networks to develop relationships with people to identify likely targets."

source.reuters
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Imran Khan joins Twitter family!


Twitter mania is on in Bollyvilla! The latest addition to the brigade is Aamir Khan's one-film-wonder nephew Imran Khan who joined the social networking site a couple of hours ago.

Karan Johar welcomes the actor on Twitter: hey tweeple...welcome @1mrankhan on twitterworld!! he debuts today....

Imran Khan's twitter account contains a single tweet saying, "And now I have twitter...".

thanks.hindustantimes


think positive

Wednesday, August 26, 2009

CLOUD COMPUTING

sun Cloud Computing Primer

Sun Cloud Computing |  Table of ConTenTs Table of ConTenTs Cloud Computing at a Higher Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Why Cloud Computing?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Clouds: Much More Than Cheap Computing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 IT Efficiency on a Whole New Scale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Faster, More Flexible Programming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Compelling New Opportunities: The Cloud Ecosystem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 How Did Cloud Computing Start?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Harnessing Cloud Computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 Use the Cloud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 Leverage the Cloud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 Build the Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Be the Cloud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Public, Private, and Hybrid Clouds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..  Cloud Computing Defined. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cornerstone Technologies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The Architectural Services Layers of Cloud Computing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Software as a Service (SaaS). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Platform as a Service (PaaS). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Inside the Cloud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Virtualization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 5 Operating System Virtualization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Platform Virtualization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Network Virtualization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Application Virtualization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Sun Cloud Computing |  Table of ConTenTs Software Deployment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Software Packaging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Machine Images. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Sun’s Cloud Philosophies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Open Source and Interoperability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Comprehensive Product Portfolio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Enterprise-grade Systemic Qualities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Efficiency/Economy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 Reliability/Availability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 Density/Scalability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 Agility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New Sun Technologies Relevant to the Cloud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Virtualization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Modular Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Open Storage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3 What You Can Do. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Copyright 1994-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc. Sun Cloud Computing | 3 > Cloud CompuTing aT a HigHer level Cloud CompuTing aT a HigHer level in many ways, cloud computing is simply a metaphor for the internet, the increasing movement of compute and data resources onto the Web. but there’s a difference: cloud computing represents a new tipping point for the value of network computing. it delivers higher efficiency, massive scalability, and faster, easier software development. it’s about new programming models, new iT infrastructure, and the enabling of new business models. For those developers and enterprises who want to embrace cloud computing, Sun is developing critical technologies to deliver enterprise scale and systemic qualities to this new paradigm: Interoperability — While most current clouds offer closed platforms and vendor lock-in, developers clamor for interoperability. Sun’s open-source product strategy and Java™ principles are focused on providing interoperability for large-scale computing resources. Think of the existing cloud “islands” merging into a new, interoperable “Intercloud” where applications can be moved to and operate across multiple platforms. High-density horizontal computing — Sun is pioneering high-power-density compute-node architectures and extreme-scale Infiniband fabrics as part of our top-tier HPC deployments. This high-density technology is being incorporated into our large-scale cloud designs. Data in the cloud — More than just compute utilities, cloud computing is increasingly about petascale data. Sun’s Open Storage products offer hybrid data servers with unprecedented efficiency and performance for the emerging data-intensive computing applications that will become a key part of the cloud. These technology bets are focused on driving more efficient large-scale cloud deployments that can provide the infrastructure for next-generation business opportunities: social networks, algorithmic trading, continuous risk analysis, and so on. Sun Cloud Computing | 4 > WHY Cloud CompuTing? Why Cloud Computing? “The rise of the cloud is more than just another platform shift that gets geeks excited. It will undoubtedly transform the IT industry, but it will also profoundly change the way people work and companies operate.” —The Economist, “Let it Rise,” 0/3/08 Clouds: much more Than Cheap Computing Cloud computing brings a new level of efficiency and economy to delivering IT resources on demand — and in the process it opens up new business models and market opportunities. While many people think of current cloud computing offerings as purely “pay by the drink” compute platforms, they’re really a convergence of two major interdependent IT trends: IT Efficiency — Minimize costs where companies are converting their IT costs from capital expenses to operating expenses through technologies such as virtualization. Cloud computing begins as a way to improve infrastructure resource deployment and utilization, but fully exploiting this infrastructure eventually leads to a new application development model. Business Agility — Maximize return using IT as a competitive weapon through rapid time to market, integrated application stacks, instant machine image deployment, and petascale parallel programming. Cloud computing is embraced as a critical way to revolutionize time to service. But inevitably these services must be built on equally innovative rapid-deployment-infrastructure models. To be sure, these trends have existed in the IT industry for years. However, the recent emergence of massive network bandwidth and virtualization technologies has enabled this transformation to a new services-oriented infrastructure. Cloud computing enables IT organizations to increase hardware utilization rates dramatically, and to scale up to massive capacities in an instant — without constantly having to invest in new infrastructure, train new personnel, or license new software. It also creates new opportunities to build a better breed of network services, in less time, for less money. Sun Cloud Computing | 5 WHY Cloud CompuTing? “By 2011, early technology adopters will forgo capital expenditures and instead purchase 40% of their IT infrastructure as a service . . .. ‘Cloud computing’ will take off, thus untying applications from specific infrastructure.” —Gartner Press Release, “Gartner Highlights Key Predictions for IT Organisations and Users in 008 and Beyond,” /3/08 it Efficiency on a Whole new Scale Cloud computing is all about efficiency. It provides a way to deploy and access everything from single systems to huge amounts of IT resources — on demand, in real time, at an affordable cost. It makes high-performance compute and high-capacity storage available to anyone with a credit card. And since the best cloud strategies build on concepts and tools that developers already know, clouds also have the potential to redefine the relationship between information technology and the developers and business units that depend on it. Reduce capital expenditures — Cloud computing makes it possible for companies to convert IT costs from capital expense to operating expense through technologies such as virtualization. Cut the cost of running a datacenter — Cloud computing improves infrastructure utilization rates and streamlines resource management. For example, clouds allow for self-service provisioning through APIs, bringing a higher level of automation to the datacenter and reducing management costs. Eliminate overprovisioning — Cloud computing provides scaling on demand, which, when combined with utility pricing, removes the need to overprovision to meet demand. With cloud computing, companies can scale up to massive capacities in an instant. For those who think cloud computing is just fluff, take a closer look at the cloud offerings that are already available. Major Internet providers Amazon.com, Google, and others are leveraging their infrastructure investments and “sharing” their large-scale economics. Already the bandwidth used by Amazon Web Services (AWS) exceeds that associated with their core e-tailing services. Forward-looking enterprises of all types — from Web .0 startups to global enterprises — are embracing cloud computing to reduce infrastructure costs. The New York Times needed to convert  million articles and images in its archive (from 85 to 980) to PDF. Their Internal IT said it would take them seven weeks. In the meantime, one developer using 00 Amazon EC simple Web service interface instances running Hadoop (an open-source implementation similar to MapReduce) completed the job in 4 hours for less than $300. —open.blogs.nytimes.com, “Self-service, Prorated Super Computing Fun!” //07, open.blogs.nytimes.com/007//0/self-service-prorated-super-computing-fun/ Sun Cloud Computing | 6 WHY Cloud CompuTing? Faster, more Flexible programming Cloud computing isn’t only about hardware — it’s also a programming revolution. Agile, easy-to-access, lightweight Web protocols — coupled with pervasive horizontally scaled architecture — can accelerate development cycles and time to market with new applications and services. New business functions are now just a script away. Accelerated cycles — The cloud computing model provides a faster, more efficient way to develop the new generation of applications and services. Faster development and testing cycles means businesses can accomplish in hours what used to take days, weeks, or months. Increase agility — Cloud computing accommodates change like no other model. For example, Animoto Productions, makers of a mashup tool that creates video from images and music, used cloud computing to scale up from 50 servers to 3,500 in just three days. Cloud computing can also provide a wider selection of more lightweight and agile development tools, simplifying and speeding up the development process. The immediate impact will be unprecedented flexibility in service creation and accelerated development cycles. But at the same time, development flexibility could become constrained by APIs if they’re not truly open. Cloud computing can usher in a new era of productivity for developers if they build on platforms that are designed to be federated rather than centralized. But there’s a major shift underway in programming culture and the languages that will be used in clouds. What’s the Next Web Stack? Sun Cloud Computing | 7 WHY Cloud CompuTing? Today, the integrated, optimized, open-source Apache, MySQL, PHP/Perl/Python (AMP) stack is the preferred platform for building and deploying new Web applications and services. Cloud computing will be the catalyst for the adoption of an even newer stack of more lightweight, agile tools such as lighttpd, an open-source Web server; Hadoop, the free Java software framework that supports data-intensive distributed applications; and MogileFS, a file system that enables horizontal scaling of storage across any number of machines. Compelling new opportunities: The Cloud ecosystem But cloud computing isn’t just about a proliferation of Xen image stacks on a restricted handful of infrastructure providers. It’s also about an emerging ecosystem of complementary services that provide computing resources such as on-ramps for cloud abstraction, professional services to help in deployment, specialized application components such as distributed databases, and virtual private datacenters for the entire range of IT providers and consumers. These services span the range of customer requirements, from individual developers and small startups to large enterprises. And they continue to expand the levels of virtualization, a key architectural component of the cloud that offers ever-higher abstractions of underlying services. Sun Cloud Computing | 8 WHY Cloud CompuTing? How did Cloud Computing start? At a basic level, cloud computing is simply a means of delivering IT resources as services. Almost all IT resources can be delivered as a cloud service: applications, compute power, storage capacity, networking, programming tools, even communications services and collaboration tools. Cloud computing began as large-scale Internet service providers such as Google, Amazon, and others built out their infrastructure. An architecture emerged: massively scaled, horizontally distributed system resources, abstracted as virtual IT services and managed as continuously configured, pooled resources. This architectural model was immortalized by George Gilder in his October 006 Wired magazine article titled “The Information Factories.” The server farms Gilder wrote about were architecturally similar to grid computing, but where grids are used for loosely coupled, technical computing applications, this new cloud model was being applied to Internet services. “In this architecture, the data is mostly resident on servers ‘somewhere on the Internet’ and the application runs on both the ‘cloud servers’ and the user’s browser.” —Eric Schmidt in ‘Information Factories’ by G. Gilder Both clouds and grids are built to scale horizontally very efficiently. Both are built to withstand failures of individual elements or nodes. Both are charged on a per-use basis. But while grids typically process batch jobs, with a defined start and end point, cloud services can be continuous. What’s more, clouds expand the types of resources available — file storage, databases, and Web services — and extend the applicability to Web and enterprise applications. At the same time, the concept of utility computing became a focus of IT design and operations. As Nick Carr observed in his book The Big Switch, computing services infrastructure was beginning to parallel the development of electricity as a utility. Wouldn’t it be great if you could purchase compute resources, on demand, only paying for what you need, when you need it? For end users, cloud computing means there are no hardware acquisition costs, no software licenses or upgrades to manage, no new employees or consultants to hire, no facilities to lease, no capital costs of any kind — and no hidden costs. Just a metered, per-use rate or a fixed subscription fee. Use only what you want, pay only for what you use. Cloud computing actually takes the utility model to the next level. It’s a new and evolved form of utility computing in which many different types of resources (hardware, software, storage, communications, and so on) can be combined and recombined on the fly into Sun Cloud Computing | 9 WHY Cloud CompuTing? the specific capabilities or services customers require. From CPU cycles for HPC projects to storage capacity for enterprise-grade backups to complete IDEs for software development, cloud computing can deliver virtually any IT capability, in real time. Under the circumstances it is easy to see that a broad range of organizations and individuals would like to purchase “computing” as a service, and those firms already building hyperscale distributed data centers would inevitably choose to begin offering this infrastructure as a service. Harnessing Cloud Computing So how does an individual or a business take advantage of the cloud computing trend? It’s not just about loading machine images consisting of your entire software stack onto a public cloud like AWS — there are several different ways to exploit this infrastructure and explore the ecosystem of new business models. use the Cloud The number and quality of public, commercially available cloud-based service offerings is growing fast. Using the cloud is often the best option for startups, research projects, Web .0 developers, or niche players who want a simple, low-cost way to “load and go.” If you’re an Internet startup today, you will be mandated by your investors to keep you IT spend to a minimum. This is certainly what the cloud is for. leverage the Cloud Typically, enterprises are using public clouds for specific functions or workloads. The cloud is an attractive alternative for: Development and testing — This is perhaps the easiest cloud use case for enterprises (not just startup developers). Why wait to order servers when you don’t even know if the project will pass the proof of concept? Functional offloading — You can use the cloud for specific workloads. For example, SmugMug does its image thumbnailing as a batch job in the cloud. “We really don’t want to operate datacenters anymore. We’d rather spend our time giving our customers great service and writing great software than managing physical hardware.” —Don MacAskill, CEO, SmugMug Sun Cloud Computing | 0 WHY Cloud CompuTing? Augmentation — Clouds give you a new option for handling peak load or anticipated spikes in demand for services. This is a very attractive option for enterprises, but also potentially one of the most difficult use cases. Success is dependent on the statefulness of the application and the interdependence with other datasets that may need to be replicated and load-balanced across the two sites. Experimenting — Why download demos of new software, and then install, license, and test it? In the future, software evaluation can be performed in the cloud, before licenses or support need to be purchased. Build the Cloud Many large enterprises understand the economic benefits of cloud computing but want to ensure strict enforcement of security policies. So they’re experimenting first with “private” clouds (see section .4), with a longer-term option of migrating mature enterprise applications to a cloud that’s able to deliver the right service levels. Other companies may simply want to build private clouds to take advantage of the economics of resource pools and standardize their development and deployment processes. Be the Cloud This category includes both cloud computing service providers and cloud aggregators — companies that offer multiple types of cloud services. As enterprises and service providers gain experience with the cloud architecture model and confidence in the security and access-control technologies that are available, many will decide to deploy externally facing cloud services. The phenomenal growth rates of some of the public cloud offerings available today will no doubt accelerate the momentum. Amazon’s EC was introduced only two years ago and officially graduated from beta to general availability in October 008. Cloud service providers can: • • • • Provide new routes to market for startups and Web .0 application developers Offer new value-added capabilities such as analytics Derive a competitive edge through enterprise-level SLAs Help enterprise customers develop their own clouds If you’re building large datacenters today, you should probably be thinking about whether you’re going to offer cloud services. Sun Cloud Computing |  Cloud CompuTing defined public, private, and Hybrid Clouds A company may choose to use a service provider’s cloud or build its own — but is it always all or nothing? Sun sees an opportunity to blend the advantages of the two primary options: Public clouds are run by third parties, and jobs from many different customers may be mixed together on the servers, storage systems, and other infrastructure within the cloud. End users don’t know who else’s job may be me running on the same server, network, or disk as their own jobs. Private clouds are a good option for companies dealing with data protection and service-level issues. Private clouds are on-demand infrastructure owned by a single customer who controls which applications run, and where. They own the server, network, and disk and can decide which users are allowed to use the infrastructure. But even those who feel compelled in the short term to build a private cloud will likely want to run applications both in privately owned infrastructure and in the public cloud space. This gives rise to the concept of a hybrid cloud. Hybrid clouds combine the public and private cloud models. You own parts and share other parts, though in a controlled way. Hybrid clouds offer the promise of on-demand, externally provisioned scale, but add the complexity of determining how to distribute applications across these different environments. While enterprises may be attracted to the promise of a hybrid cloud, this option, at least initially, will likely be reserved for simple stateless applications that require no complex databases or synchronization. > Cloud CompuTing defined “It’s one of the foundations of the next generation of computing. . .. It’s a world where the network is the platform for all computing, where everything we think of as a computer today is just a device that connects to the big computer we’re building. Cloud computing is a great way to think about how we’ll deliver computing services in the future.” —Tim O’Reilly, CEO, O’Reilly Media Sun Cloud Computing |  Cloud CompuTing defined Cornerstone Technology While the basic technologies of cloud computing such as horizontally scaled, distributed compute nodes have been available for some time, virtualization — the abstraction of computer resources — is the cornerstone technology for all cloud architectures. With the ability to virtualize servers (behind a hypervisor-abstracted operating system), storage devices, desktops, and applications, a wide array of IT resources can now be allocated on demand. The dramatic growth in the ubiquitous availability of affordable high-bandwidth networking over the past several years is equally critical. What was available to only a small percentage of Internet users a decade ago is now offered to the majority of Internet users in North America, Europe, and Asia: high bandwidth, which allows massive compute and data resources to be accessed from the browser. Virtualized resources can truly be anywhere in the cloud — not just across gigabit datacenter LANs and WANs but also via broadband to remote programmers and end users. Additional enabling technologies for cloud computing can deliver IT capabilities on an absolutely unprecedented scale. Just a few examples: Sophisticated file systems such as ZFS can support virtually unlimited storage capacities, integration of the file system and volume management, snapshots and copy-on-write clones, on-line integrity checking, and repair. Patterns in architecture allow for accelerated development of superscale cloud architectures by providing repeatable solutions to common problems. New techniques for managing structured, unstructured, and semistructured data can provide radical improvements in data-intensive computing. Machine images can be instantly deployed, dramatically simplifying and accelerating resource allocation while increasing IT agility and responsiveness. The architectural services layers of Cloud Computing While the first revolution of the Internet saw the three-tier (or n-tier) model emerge as a general architecture, the use of virtualization in clouds has created a new set of layers: applications, services, and infrastructure. These layers don’t just encapsulate on-demand resources, they also define a new application development model. And within each layer of abstraction there are myriad business opportunities for defining services that can be offered on a pay-per-use basis. Software as a Service (SaaS) SaaS is at the highest layer and features a complete application offered as a service, ondemand, via multitenancy — meaning a single instance of the software runs on the Sun Cloud Computing | 3 inside THe Cloud provider’s infrastructure and serves multiple client organizations. The most widely known example of SaaS is Salesforce.com, but there are now many others, including the Google Apps offering of basic business services such as e-mail. Of course, Salesforce.com’s multitenant application has preceded the definition of cloud computing by a few years. On the other hand, like many other players in cloud computing, Salesforce.com now operates at more than one cloud layer with its release of Force.com, a companion application development environment, or platform as a service. platform as a Service (paaS) The middle layer, or PaaS, is the encapsulation of a development environment abstraction and the packaging of a payload of services. The archetypal payload is a Xen image (part of Amazon Web Services) containing a basic Web stack (for example, a Linux distro, a Web server, and a programming environment such as Pearl or Ruby). PaaS offerings can provide for every phase of software development and testing, or they can be specialized around a particular area, such as content management. Commercial examples include Google App Engine, which serves applications on Google’s infrastructure. PaaS services such as these can provide a great deal of flexibility but may be constrained by the capabilities that are available through the provider. infrastructure as a Service (iaaS) IaaS is at the lowest layer and is a means of delivering basic storage and compute capabilities as standardized services over the network. Servers, storage systems, switches, routers, and other systems are pooled (through virtualization technology, for example) to handle specific types of workloads — from batch processing to server/storage augmentation during peak loads. The best-known commercial example is Amazon Web Services, whose EC and S3 services offer bare-bones compute and storage services (respectively). Another example is Joyent whose main product is a line of virtualized servers which provide a highly scalable on-demand infrastructure for running Web sites, including rich Web applications written in Ruby on Rails, PHP, Python, and Java. > inside THe Cloud A key attraction of cloud computing is that it conceals the complexity of the infrastructure from developers and end users. They don’t know or need to know what’s in the cloud — they only care that it delivers the services they need. But those who choose to build clouds for private use or as a business in itself have critical technology decisions to make in abstracting and managing underlying resources. This section takes a closer look at the key architectural attributes and underlying technologies of virtualization. Sun Cloud Computing | 4 inside THe Cloud virtualization Virtualization is a cornerstone design technique for all cloud architectures. In cloud computing it refers primarily to platform virtualization, or the abstraction of physical IT resources from the people and applications using them. Virtualization allows servers, storage devices, and other hardware to be treated as a pool of resources rather than discrete systems, so that these resources can be allocated on demand. In cloud computing, we’re interested in techniques such as paravirtualization, which allows a single server to be treated as multiple virtual servers, and clustering, which allows multiple servers to be treated as a single server. As a means of encapsulation of physical resources, virtualization solves several core challenges of datacenter managers and delivers specific advantages, including: Higher utilization rates — Prior to virtualization, server and storage utilization rates in enterprise datacenters typically averaged less than 50% (in fact, 0% to 5% utilization rates were common). Through virtualization, workloads can be encapsulated and transferred to idle or underused systems — which means existing systems can be consolidated, so purchases of additional server capacity can be delayed or avoided. Resource consolidation — Virtualization allows for consolidation of multiple IT resources. Beyond server and storage consolidation, virtualization provides an opportunity to consolidate the systems architecture, application infrastructure, data and databases, interfaces, networks, desktops, and even business processes, resulting in cost savings and greater efficiency. Lower power usage/costs — The electricity required to run enterprise-class datacenters is no longer available in unlimited supplies, and the cost is on an upward spiral. For every dollar spent on server hardware, an addition dollar is spent on power (including the cost of running and cooling servers). Using virtualization to consolidate makes it possible to cut total power consumption and save significant money. Space savings — Server sprawl remains a serious problem in most enterprise datacenters, but datacenter expansion is not always an option, with building costs averaging several thousand dollars per square foot. Virtualization can alleviate the strain by consolidating many virtual systems onto fewer physical systems. Disaster recovery/business continuity — Virtualization can increase overall service-level availability rates and provide new options for disaster recovery solutions. Reduced operations costs — The average enterprise spends $8 in maintenance for every $ spent on new infrastructure. Virtualization can change the serverto-admin ratio, reduce the total administrative workload, and cut total operations costs. Sun Cloud Computing | 5 inside THe Cloud operating System Virtualization The use of OS-level virtualization or partitioning (such as LPARs, VPARs, NPARs, Dynamic System Domains, and so on) in cloud architectures can help solve some of the core security, privacy, and regulatory issues that could otherwise hinder the adoption of cloud computing. For example, OS virtualization such as that provided by Solaris™ Containers makes it possible to maintain a one-application-per-server deployment model while simultaneously sharing hardware resources. Solaris Containers isolate software applications and services using software-defined boundaries and allow many private execution environments to be created within a single instance of the Solaris OS. Each environment has its own identity, separate from the underlying hardware, so it behaves as if it’s running on its own system, making consolidation simple, safe, and secure. This makes it possible to reduce the administrative overhead and complexity of managing multiple operating systems and improve utilization at the same time. platform Virtualization Platform virtualization allows arbitrary operating systems and resulting application environments to run on a given system. There are two basic models for this system virtualization: full virtualization, or a complete simulation of underlying hardware, and paravirtualization, which offers a “mostly similar” model of the underlying hardware. These are implemented as Type  hypervisors, which run directly on hardware, and Type  hypervisors, which run on top of a traditional operating system. Each of the top virtualization vendors offers variations of both models. It’s important to realize that there are design and performance trade-offs for any model of system virtualization. Generally, the more abstract the OS is made from the underlying hardware, the less hardware-specific features can be accessed. Increased OS abstraction can also increase the potential for performance reduction and limitations. network Virtualization Load-balancing techniques have been a hot topic in cloud computing because, as the physical and virtual systems within the cloud scale up, so does the complexity of managing the workload that’s performed to deliver the service. Load balancers group multiple servers and services behind virtual IP addresses. They provide resource-based scheduling of service requests and automatic failover when a node fails. While hardware balancers may outperform software-based balancers, their flexibility is always limited. Engineers end up either writing software that interacts with hardware via a suboptimal user interface or using a large number of computers to solve the problem. A significant challenge in cloud computing networking is not just the provisioning of individual virtual network interfaces to a given virtual environment, but also the increasing need of cloud infrastructures to offer a more complicated virtual private datacenter, which provisions a set of different system roles and the logical interconnections between those roles. Sun Cloud Computing | 6 inside THe Cloud Application Virtualization There is also a software angle to “containers” within the cloud. The Web container technology implemented in the cloud greatly impacts developer productivity and flexibility. The Web container is the part of the application server that manages servlets, JavaServerTM Page (JSP) files, and other Web-tier components. But not all Web container technologies are created equal. Apache Tomcat, for example, is a popular open-source Web container technology, but it has limitations for developers who want to go beyond Web-tier applications. If an application needs to use persistence, clustering, failover, messaging, or Enterprise Java Beans (EJBTM), these capabilities have to be added to Tomcat one by one, whereas the GlassFish™ Project provides an integrated collection of Java EE containers that delivers all of these capabilities. Today, most cloud computing offerings concentrate on platform virtualization, and the developer chooses the OS and development platform. But increasingly public clouds and certainly private clouds will offer higher-level development environment programming abstractions. Over time, we might expect the level of abstraction that the developer interfaces with to move gradually upward as more functionality percolates down into the platform. software deployment With cloud computing offering increasing abstraction of the underlying hardware, a related, but separate, set of decisions must be made concerning how the software and applications are deployed on cloud infrastructure. The cloud computing model is flexible enough to accommodate applications of all types and sizes, at all phases of development and deployment. Cloud architectures can be the delivery platform for monolithic, proprietary applications such as ERP and CRM; the development and deployment platform for a new breed of lightweight, dynamically typed applications built on open source software; or a source of IDEs and testing resources. Software packaging The software-based packaging of software components, data, server and storage pools, and other cloud resources makes efficient resource allocation, re-use, and management possible. The packaging system is essentially a software delivery mechanism that simplifies and accelerates the installation of everything from operating systems to applications to end-user data. The image packaging system (IPS) for the OpenSolaris™ OS, for example, makes it possible to create images and install, search, update, and manage packages in the image. The IPS can also be used to create custom packages and repositories and to publish and manage packages to the repositories. Increasingly, cloud operators and datacenters are moving away from installing systems software on each server, choosing to deploy golden images on farms of servers. In any case, basic software configurations must be provisioned on the system resource pools. Sun Cloud Computing | 7 sun’s Cloud pHilosopHies machine images Increasingly, a similar image-based deployment model is becoming the primary mechanism for deploying application development payloads on virtual resource pools. Machine images contain user-specific applications, libraries, data, and associated configuration settings and are hosted within the cloud. Perhaps the best-known examples are Xen images. This model of deployment is the basis of Amazon Machine Images (AMIs), which are built around a variety of kernels. You can select among a range of public AMIs (preconfigured, templated images) or build your own custom/private AMI. Most AMIs are built on some form of Linux, such as Fedora or Ubuntu. They’re easy to modify and share, and tools are provided by Amazon. Paid AMIs can be created by ISVs and stored on Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3). Amazon Machine Images are available for OpenSolaris (3-bit) and Solaris Express (3-bit and 64-bit) operating systems. > sun’s Cloud pHilosopHies It’s Sun’s goal to combine the systems and software to build a cloud, the architectural expertise to maximize cloud capabilities, and the technologies to take cloud computing to a higher level. Our approach is to deliver all the components that enterprises, developers, and end users need to build cloud environments, through our own or partners’ offerings. open source and interoperability While some clouds are closed platforms with vendor lock-in, Sun’s open-source philosophy and Java principles are the basis of our strategy: providing interoperability for large-scale computing resources and distributing applications across multiple cloud infrastructure components. Ideally, users of cloud computing would be able to move their applications among a variety of standardized providers who offer open-source interfaces to common services. Today, most clouds are proprietary, and even where the components offered are open source, cloud operators cultivate significant lock-in through their underlying services, such as storage and databases. Private clouds created by individual enterprises certainly have the advantage of offering (and requiring) adherence to corporate standards, but even here the desire for enterprises to be able to “flex” their private clouds with public-cloud capacity on demand calls for increasing levels of open standards to emerge in the cloud computing milieu. Think of the existing cloud islands merging into a new, interoperable “Intercloud.” The Intercloud would take the basic concept of the Internet up another level, essentially a global cloud of clouds, united by a set of protocols and software, yet segmented (for security and predictability) into clusters and “intraclouds.” Sun Cloud Computing | 8 sun’s Cloud pHilosopHies Sun is working toward the vision of the Intercloud by expanding research and development efforts in four key open-source areas: Software — Providing the open-standards-based tools that developers and architects need to build agile services that can be deployed in the cloud — from Sun’s Web stack to software elements from other vendors Systems — Delivering compute, storage, and networking systems that interoperate with each other and integrate with systems from other vendors, whether they’re based on AMDTM, Intel®, or SPARC® architectures Microelectronics — Pushing the envelope for chip multithreading (CMT) and multicore computing; moving to ever-higher compute densities within the cloud Services — Supporting development efforts through a broad range of professional services, network services, and value-added service offerings from partners (ISVs, OEMs, channel partners, and systems integrators) Comprehensive product portfolio Sun is specially positioned to bring cloud computing to fruition because we have a top-to-bottom solution to support the entire stack — from microprocessors (and servers) offering unique multithreaded power/performance capability to innovative Open Storage solutions to a full complement of application development software technologies, including virtualization, identity management, and Web .0 programming platform tools. Sun products are integrated across all the layers of technology involved and can be integrated with standards-based technologies from other vendors. And many of Sun’s products and technologies are on-ramps to cloud computing, including virtually all of Sun’s server and storage systems, the Solaris OS, the ZFS file system, the Sun xVM portfolio, and Sun Ray™ desktops. enterprise-grade systemic Qualities The unpredictable nature of cloud computing workloads requires that clouds be architected for extremely high levels of efficiency, service-level availability, scalability, manageability, security, and other systemic qualities. Initially, cloud computing platforms are attractive for their low-cost development and deployment capabilities. But as firms increasingly use cloud platforms for actual production environments, they will require enterprise-level SLAs. Maximizing systemic qualities requires integrating the development of these qualities into the design process of large-scale architectures. For cloud computing, the focus of systemic qualities is different from the host-based, client-server models and Web-based models of the past. In some ways the challenge to achieve systemic qualities is more complex. On the other hand, if these architectures are properly designed from the beginning, this can contribute to, and not challenge, the achievement of systemic qualities. Sun Cloud Computing | 9 sun’s Cloud pHilosopHies Sun has introduced a number of innovations that deliver enterprise-grade systemic qualities in cloud computing architectures. These innovations are primarily in the areas of efficiency and economy, reliability and availability, density and scalability, agility, and security. Efficiency/Economy • Pioneered the “green”-computing movement with energy-efficient CoolThreads™ technology and the use of printed circuit boards using far less hazardous materials — which has saved companies hundreds of millions of dollars in energy costs alone • Low-cost innovator with offerings that span datacenter design, hardware, OS, and software components; leading advocate of open-source software; using virtualization technologies in all aspects of product design and development in order to achieve greater power efficiencies Enables large numbers of servers to function more efficiently and saves costs on energy, cabling, HVAC, and so on; minimizes capital expenditures (infrastructure owned by the provider) • Reliability/Availability • Service-level availability through the built-in RAS features of the Solaris OS and OpenSolaris OS and sophisticated hardware-level availability features from failover to clustering to dynamic reconfiguration • Reliability by way of multiple redundant sites, which makes it suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery density/Scalability • Extremely high density; large number of cores per rack and transactions per rack unit • Cloud nodes in the form of Sun™ Modular Datacenter systems and the Sun Constellation System cloud computing environment; virtualization and dynamic reconfiguration for efficient scaling on demand without having to engineer for peak loads Agility • Multiple hardware architectures to customize systems to workloads • Multitenancy, enabling sharing of resources (and costs) among a large pool of users, allowing for: — Centralization of infrastructure in areas with lower costs such as real estate and electricity — Peak-load capacity increases without engineering for highest possible load levels Sun Grid Engine software to request and reserve resources for specific amounts of time (see sun.com/software/gridware.) • Sun Cloud Computing | 0 neW sun TeCHnologies relevanT To THe Cloud Security Typically, security improves with the centralization of data and increased security-focused resources, so cloud computing raises concerns about loss of control over certain sensitive data. Accesses are typically logged, but accessing the audit logs themselves can be difficult or impossible. Sun addresses the challenges with a range of innovations. For example: • The Solaris 0 OS includes Process and User Rights Management, Trusted Extensions for Mandatory Access Control (MAC), and the Cryptographic Framework and Secure By Default Networking that allows developers to safely deliver new solutions, consolidate with security, and protect mission-critical data. Sun Identity Manager software is the market leader, delivering the only complete user-provisioning and metadirectory solution that enhances enterprise security. The Java Composite Application Platform Suite (Java CAPS) contains everything an enterprise needs to develop and deploy an SOA platform for the reuse of existing applications, the delivery of new services, and enabling legacy and packaged applications to rapidly integrate within an existing infrastructure. The suite is SOA-based, is fully integrated, and delivers a rich set of integration and composite application capabilities, including business process management (BPM), industryleading messaging, rich transformation, and a broad array of connectors. Sun is positioned in the Leaders Quadrant of Gartner’s Magic Quadrant for Web Access Management for our governance, reporting, and compliance software, providing controlled and role-based access management to back-line resources or federated partner services, based on unique-ID, role, IP-address, group, or perasset entitlements. • • • Sun Cloud Computing |  > neW sun TeCHnologies relevanT To THe Cloud neW sun TeCHnologies relevanT To THe Cloud virtualization Sun is one of the few companies with the ability to address all of the different kinds of cloud virtualization: hypervisor (Sun xVM Server), OS (Solaris Containers), network (Crossbow), storage (COMSTAR, ZFS), and applications (GlassFish and Java CAPS technologies). As a vertically integrated system company with two decades of experience in virtualization technologies — from the Network File System (NFS) that Sun introduced in 985 to Dynamic System Domains, chip multithreading (CMT), and Solaris Containers — Sun has the experience and expertise to take virtualization a new level. Our virtualization platform is the Sun xVM portfolio, which provides comprehensive virtualization capabilities, interoperability across heterogeneous environments, and integrated management of both virtual and physical resources. Sun xVM Server is Sun’s datacenter-grade, Xen-based, bare-metal Type- hypervisor that uses the enterprise-scale Solaris Operating System as the OS core (as opposed to a restricted Linux core), providing access to OS-level network virtualization/optimization. xVM Server includes both the hypervisor and the relevant management infrastructure to monitor and manage the running of multiple different OS guests, including Windows, Linux, and Solaris guest operating systems, on a single physical server at the same time. It also provides live migration and works well with VMware and Microsoft virtual machines. That makes xVM Server an excellent foundation for larger virtualization solutions, which can then be managed and orchestrated by xVM Ops Center software, Sun’s virtualization management product. But unlike other Type- hypervisors using a bare Linux core, xVM Server is built within a Solaris OS container providing unique hardware capabilities: multithreaded CPUs, 0GbE links, and quality-of-service control to improve I/O performance. xVM Server is also able to extend the advanced technologies in the Solaris OS, such as ZFS, Predictive Self-Healing, DTrace, advanced networking, and security to Windows and Linux guests (in addition to any Solaris guest instances). Additionally, unlike other virtualization platforms, Sun xVM Server draws on open-source and community involvement through the OpenSolaris and OpenxVM communities to provide an open and interoperable offering. Sun xVM Server, coupled with Sun’s OpenSolaris project, provides the most innovative and advanced building blocks for cloud infrastructure: • • • • • • Network virtualization with Crossbow Storage virtualization based on COMSTAR and ZFS OS virtualization based on Solaris Containers Virtualization based on OpenxVM Device and location independence, enabling users to access systems regardless of their physical location or type of access device (PC, PDA, mobile phone, and more) Desktop virtualization via Sun xVM Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI) Sun Cloud Computing |  neW sun TeCHnologies relevanT To THe Cloud modular systems Large-scale datacenters are using increasingly modular approaches to provision and manage pools of standard servers, storage systems, and network resources. Points of delivery (PODs), for example, provide environments that are optimized for specific workloads, such as HTTP or HPC, or specific capacities, such as numbers of users or transactions. They encapsulate storage, networking, management, and servers. The POD hardware platform layer consists of compute hardware, networking, and storage. The availability and scalability requirements and the service tier that the hardware is intended to support often drive the specifications of the servers. Applications can scale independently. As applications need more resources than are available in a POD, additional PODs can be added, providing more capacity. Both horizontal and vertical scaling can be used as appropriate for each application. One example of a POD is the Sun Customer Ready HPC Cluster, a platform that allows IT organizations to deploy a standard set of preintegrated servers, switches, and storage devices with rack-at-a-time granularity. These HPC clusters can be built out of standard rackmount servers, such as the Sun Fire™ X450 server, or Sun Constellation Systems built with Sun Blade™ X6000 series blade modules. The Sun Constellation C48 racks (four Sun Blade X6000 systems) offer 7 TFLOPS from 768 cores, but with 7% improved power efficiency. Systems such as this, while providing unprecedented power efficiency, are typical of extreme power density associated with cloud computing datacenters. Thus, most cloud datacenters reject traditional underfloor cooling, opting for more efficient overhead services and hot isle/cold isle layouts. Another well-known example of POD design is the Sun Modular Datacenter S0, a comprehensive datacenter delivered in a shipping container. The 0-foot enhanced container can be loaded into almost any transportation system and delivered to a customer’s site, ready to be installed by Sun or a Sun partner. Inside is an integrated power, cooling, and rack system that can be populated with any 9-inch rackable, front-to-back-cooled equipment that fits the customer’s specific computing needs. The Sun Modular Datacenter has proven to be ten times faster to deploy than a conventional datacenter. Plus, it reduces capital expenses with incremental expansion capabilities, and it provides four times higher density per rack compared with a typical datacenter — with 40% lower cooling costs in one-eighth the space. open storage Open Storage enables cloud computing to be done at a lower cost and at larger scale than traditional, proprietary storage. Open Storage is about using industry-standard components, including x64/x86 servers as storage controllers and flash memory, to accelerate low-cost, high-capacity disk drives, with enterprise-class open-source software to deliver inexpensive, high-capacity, highly scalable architectures. Sun Cloud Computing | 3 neW sun TeCHnologies relevanT To THe Cloud Open Storage also enables new architectural models for data management. With the open-source storage stack running on industry-standard hardware, including x64 and SPARC systems, we’re able to get the data closer to the processors. This simplifies data-intensive computing by eliminating the need to move data around a network. Devices or servers that fit this model include Sun Fire X4540 servers, which are available in  to 48-TB configurations, all in a 4RU platform with four-core x64 processors. Shared JBODs benefit from the Open Storage stack and enable highly available storage architectures. Open Storage enables enterprise-class architectures to be built out of industry-standard components. Customers, developers, and consumers can download this stack and build their own storage appliances. But those customers who would rather buy a fully integrated storage appliance can choose the Sun Storage 7000 family of unified storage systems. Following the Open Storage model, these systems are built out of industry-standard servers, leverage the capacity advantages of industry-standard SATA II drives, and integrate flashbased SSDs in a hybrid storage model, all with a simple-to-use and elegant user interface. By leveraging general-purpose hardware and software, a new breed of system becomes possible. For example, the Sun Storage 7000 line has the ability to observe what’s going on inside storage devices at a level that has previously not been possible. Open Storage provides a new and unique business model as well. Capabilities such as snapshot, replication, and compression are all included and there are no additional costs for the data services. This open source stack also includes protocols such as NFS, CIFS, iSCSI, and FC. Open Storage architectures benefit from innovation in the information technology industry. Being built on industry standard components enables quicker adaptation of new processors and new interconnects (such as GigE and 0GigE), as well as incorporating new technologies like flash-based SSDs. Sun’s breakthrough Sun Fire X4540 series data servers are redefining storage density. By integrating state-of-the-art server and storage technologies, the Sun Fire X4500 server delivers the performance of a four-way x64 server and up to 48 TB in 4U of rack space. This system also delivers incredibly high data throughput (about three times that of competitive systems) for about half the cost of traditional solutions. “[The Sun Fire X4500 server ] is the Web 2.0 server. . . . I really think it is the category of the future. Now companies can get hardware like this and build next-generation applications.” —Tim O’Reilly, CEO, O’Reilly Media Sun Cloud Computing | 4 WHaT You Can do Moreover, Sun’s storage servers are the vanguard of refactoring storage into generalpurpose server appliances. They combine a server with disk, networking capabilities, and native metadata and query capabilities. Specialized software enables these generalpurpose systems to provide high-performance data services, making possible computeon-storage strategies for avoiding the high-latency movement of extreme-scale data for data-intensive clouds. > WHaT You Can do As you can see, cloud computing changes everything. It abstracts the software application platform from the underlying hardware infrastructure, freeing developers and users from becoming locked in to specific hardware. In cloud computing, the user’s data and software execution are in the cloud (a.k.a. the Internet). With a singular vision—The Network Is The ComputerTM—and the research, product portfolio, and communities that this vision has created, Sun is uniquely positioned to help enterprises build and use cloud computing deployments. This is a vision that everyone can participate in. So here’s how you can help continue the development of this architecture and take advantage of cloud computing: • Evaluate your business and technology requirements – Sun can help, by conducting a Cloud Computing Workshop or Datacenter Assessment sun.com/service/assess. A few key questions to help you get started: — What are the different layers at which you might leverage cloud services — Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), Software as a Service (SaaS)? — What are the business models under which you would operate and use the cloud — public, private, hybrid? — What are the different types of applications you want to put into the cloud — Web, HPC and analytics, regulated applications? • Join the Sun Cloud API community at http://kenai.com/projects/suncloudapis to join the discussion and influence the direction of Sun’s open APIs for the cloud. Sign up for the Sun Cloud public beta sun.com/cloud and start building and testing your applications and services in the cloud. • Sun Cloud Computing | 5 Cloud CompuTing aT a HigHer level © 009. Sun Microsystems Inc. All rights reserved. Sun, Sun Microsystems, the Sun logo, Java, Solaris, OpenSolaris, ZFS, xVM, Sun Ray, CoolThreads, JavaServer, EJB, GlassFish, Sun Fire, Sun Blade, MySQL, Sun Startup Essentials, and The Network Is The Computer are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. or its subsidiaries in the United States and other countries. All SPARC trademarks are used under license and are trademarks or registered trademarks of SPARC International, Inc. in the US and other countries. Products bearing SPARC trademarks are based upon an architecture developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. AMD and Opteron are trademarks or registered trademarks of Advanced Micro Devices. Intel is a trademark or registered trademark of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the U.S. and other countries. Information subject to change without notice. Lit. #GNHT4877-0 03/09 Sun Cloud Computing | 6

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Tuesday, August 25, 2009

How To Clear Your Internet History in Firefox


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Thursday, August 20, 2009

Four Steps To Personal Growth


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Desktop Crashed - windows explorer fixes


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BEST BACKUP METHODS


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Video Lighting Tutorial – Three Point Lighting


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Wednesday, August 19, 2009

Increase The Life Of Your Hard Drive


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How to Retrieve a Lost Windows Password


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How to Use Twitter On Your Cellphone


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Tuesday, August 18, 2009

How to use Facial Recognition Software


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Control Your Computer With A Webcam


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How To Create a Wireless Network At Home




You Will Need

* A computer with wireless capability
* A high-speed modem, like a DSL or cable modem
* A wireless router
* A broadband internet connection


Step 1: Confirm that your computer is wireless

Make sure your computer is configured to go wireless. If it doesn’t have a wireless network card already installed, you’ll need to buy one.

Step 2: Install a broadband connection

If you don’t already have one, get a broadband internet connection, along with a high-speed modem (like a DSL or cable modem). Your internet service provider will probably supply the modem. This is how you access the internet.

Step 3: Buy a wireless router

Buy a wireless router, which allows you to share your modem’s connection to the internet over radio waves. A new router will likely broadcast on the latest, fastest standard, but if your computer or wireless card is older, make sure it’s compatible with your router.

Step 4: Turn off all hardware

Turn off all your hardware, including your computer, modem, and router.


Step 5: Connect your wireless router to the modem

Connect your modem to your wireless router according to your router’s directions. Most likely you’ll simply remove the cable originally connecting your modem to your computer and connect it to the port on the back of your router labeled “internet,” “WAN,” or “WLAN.”

Step 6: Make a temporary connection

Take the network cable included with your modem and connect your computer to one of the open slots on the back of the router. This will be only a temporary connection.



Step 7: Power up

Turn on your modem and let it boot up. Then plug in your router’s power supply. Finally, turn on your computer.


Step 8: Find configuration address

Open your web browser. Enter the internet address needed to configure the router, which should be included in your router’s instructions. Once you’ve entered the address, enter the password, if any, listed in the manual. You should now see a configuration menu.

tips:When you’re done setting up the router, change the default administrator password needed to access the configuration menu.


Step 9: Change the SSID

Change your network’s default SSID, which is the name you choose to call your network. It can be anything you want, though for security reasons you might not want to pick anything that locates you exactly, like your street address or apartment number, because the name often can be seen by people within range.


Step 10: Configure your security settings

Configure your security settings, which will include choosing between two kinds of protection, WEP or WPA access. You’ll need to set a password that will be required to access the network. Choose one that’s a mix of numbers and upper- and lowercase letters.



Step 11: Save your settings

Your network is now basically secure. Save your settings. If you wish to increase your security later, consult your router’s instructions on how to turn on something called MAC address filtering, which restricts which actual computers can get on your network.


Step 12: Connect wirelessly

It’s time to go wireless—disconnect your computer from the router. Open the wireless network connection menu on your computer. Enter the SSID and password you chose to connect to your network.


Step 13: Connect other computers

Bingo! Now you can surf in style. Connect any other computers you want to the network. If you’re experiencing trouble, consult your router’s manual for troubleshooting tips.

thanks.howcast


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Monday, August 17, 2009

Internet Explorer 8


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Shrink + Convert Large Files


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Download HD Youtube Videos - NO Software


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Bing Travel: Price Predictor


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Sunday, August 16, 2009

USTREAM.TV




Ustream.TV is the live interactive video broadcast platform that enables anyone with a camera and an Internet connection to quickly and easily broadcast to a global audience of unlimited size. In less than two minutes, anyone can become a broadcaster by creating their own channel on Ustream or by broadcasting through their own site, empowering them to engage with their audience and further build their brand. Click here to start a broadcast now or learn more about broadcasting.

Ustream's one-to-many live interactive video encourages broadcast-to-viewer and viewer-to-viewer interaction, empowering a much more engaging experience for everyone involved.

With Ustream's interactive broadcast functionality, viewers can personally interact directly with whoever is broadcasting -- including personalities like their favorite musician or politician. Ustream viewers can watch specific broadcasts, explore our networks ranging from music, talk shows, sports and politics to discover a world of interesting new broadcasts, or review our past broadcasts.

Ustream opens up a new world of possibilities and experiences to broadcasters and viewers alike, which the pre-recorded static video that's predominated the Internet to date just can't provide. Today, people are Ustreaming everything including:

* Major political events such as debates, speeches, rallies
* Talk shows
* Entertainment events such as premieres and 'red carpet events'
* Music showcases of their favorite music, of their own band's performances, and live jam sessions
* Conference sessions
* School and business events and training
* Sporting events at college and high school level
* Personal milestones such as holiday gatherings, weddings, grade school events, parties, even births
* Interactive games for viewers to watch or join

Have you always dreamed of speaking to the world but don't have the training or experience to become a professional broadcaster? Do you feel you're destined to be watched and adored by millions of people? Well, if you have a webcam and an Internet connection, Ustream.tv will allow you to start living your dreams.

Ustream started with U.S. Army Officers John Ham and Brad Hunstable who wanted to provide a new way for deployed soldiers to communicate with their families. Before Ustream, soldiers could only use a telephone or instant messenger to talk with their loved ones, limiting their contact to only one person at a time. Officers Ham and Hunstable partnered with Dr. Gyula Feher, and in the summer of 2006, they released Ustream, a "live, interactive video broadcast platform" that allowed soldiers to communicate with friends and family simultaneously across the globe [source: Ustream].



The idea is pretty simple: Provide a common area for a person to broadcast him or herself and allow the broadcaster and viewers to communicate instantaneously. According to the Ustream Web site, it allows "anyone with a camera and an Internet connection to quickly and easily broadcast to a global audience of unlimited size."

Since 2006, Ustream has grown exponentially and moved from a service that helps soldiers stay in touch with their families to an outlet for hundreds of thousands of people to discuss and showcase everything from current world events to the joy of newborn puppies. In fact, the site hosts more than 10 million viewers a month and between 10,000 to 15,000 individual broadcasts every day [source: Ustream]. It requires no downloads and can be embedded just about anywhere.

Are you already dusting off your webcam in preparation for your big debut? Well, before you start sending yourself down the information superhighway, let's take a look at how this service works.


The Power of Interaction

Ustream was founded with the idea of bringing people together, so it's not surprising that it provides an interactive experience for its users. Individual audience members can communicate directly with the host and each other in a variety of ways, which means that the viewers of a show can actually influence the direction of its content.

The most common form of interaction between a host and his or her audience is through the various chat and messaging options Ustream provides. During a broadcast, viewers may have the choice to chat in a standard IRC (Internet relay chat) instant message format, similar to AIM or GTalk. People can also use their Twitter IDs to log in to ongoing social streams by clicking the "T Social Stream" button on the top of the chat box. These chatting options provide Ustream users with an open forum, allowing them to communicate with each other and the broadcaster in real time. By granting hosts and their viewers so much freedom to interact, Ustream fosters the creation of interactive online communities, and broadcasts have the ability to become uniquely intimate, engaging events for everybody involved. However, chats are optional, and some broadcasters may choose to avoid them completely.

Instant polls are another way broadcasters can interact with their audiences. At any point during a broadcast, a host can create a poll by clicking the "poll" button in the upper-left corner of the screen. The questions and answers are written by the host and can be about anything. Regardless of the topic, polling the audience allows hosts to gain a more thorough understanding of the consciousness of their listeners, allowing them to refine the content of their broadcasts.

Although it's much more indirect, one of the most vital methods of interaction between a host and his audience is establishing and adhering to a schedule. After all, the audience isn't going to just sit around and wait for broadcasts. Virtually all shows with any sort of community follow a strict schedule with clearly defined broadcast times.

Click over to the next page to see how recent political events brought Ustream unprecedented success and which celebrities use the service to connect with their fans.


Who Uses Ustream?

Ustream is a place where anybody can broadcast their opinions, interests, video game skills or even their puppies, kittens or termites. Many groups and organizations use Ustream to expand or enhance their services. Numerous radio stations, including Fox News Radio and Air America, use Ustream to stream their broadcasts live, providing a free visual alternative to the radio. CBS has a live breaking news feed on Ustream, and local news stations from across the globe stream their broadcasts to the Internet with the service.

Ustream has also become a popular destination and outlet for famous people. From politicians to actors and musicians, Ustream provides a new way for celebrities and their fans to interact, and their presence has brought millions of additional visitors to the site.

In 2008, for example, Ustream went political, and it was a huge success. Just about every candidate running for president broadcasted from Ustream at some point during their race, from Barack Obama and John McCain to Libertarian candidate Mike Gravel [source: Reuters]. But the biggest boost for Ustream came from the Republican National Convention (RNC) in September.

Approximately 7 million people watched the RNC conference via Ustream. They watched the RNC proceedings directly from the Ustream site, individual blogs, their MySpace or Facebook pages as well as countless various news and political Web sites. It was a huge event for Ustream, and aside from giving a massive traffic boost to the site, it helped many people understand the differences between Ustream's live, streaming service and a prerecorded video outlet like YouTube. It also paved the way for the 7.7 million people who streamed President Barack Obama's Inaugural Address in January 2009, although there were multiple Web sites providing live streams for that event, not just Ustream. Still, Ustream was the most popular choice, as more than half (3.8 million) used the service for the event [source: Reuters].

Political candidates are not the only famous people who frequent Ustream, however. Many celebrities, from A to Z-list status, use Ustream to promote their projects and connect with fans. Ashton Kutcher, Snoop Dogg, Miley Cyrus and Perez Hilton all broadcast shows of one kind or another. (Ashton Kutcher hosts a one-man show where he cracks jokes and replies to comments from viewers, and Snoop Dogg chats with his audience and basically just smokes marijuana.) Regardless of whether you're watching the Jonas Brothers read letters from their fans or P. Diddy frequenting New York night clubs, you'll probably find someone or something that catches your interest.

Although it might not be the most popular video broadcasting Web site out there (that honor goes to Justin.tv and its plethora of live sporting events), Ustream provides a unique service for a constantly expanding user base [source: TechCrunch]. It offers viewers thousands of different programs across a wide range of topics. Ustream's video categories include:

* Live (featured programs currently broadcasting)
* Mobile (broadcasts from mobile devices)
* Sports
* Entertainment
* Gaming (covering everything from video games to poker)
* News
* Animals
* 24/7 (shows that are always live and broadcasting)

Each category has multiple subcategories (Entertainment/Comedy, Animals/Dogs, Music/Rock). The diversity of Ustream's content ensures that if you're looking for something to watch, you can find a show you're interested in, or, if you're broadcasting, potential viewers can find you.

Ustream's service, however, is not without its downsides, the most obvious of which is its inconsistent internal search engine. Its results are sporadic and indicate that Ustream has no ability to weed out content not related to a specific search. To complicate matters further, the broadcasters who create the shows are the ones to source and tag the programs, and they often link wildly inaccurate search tags to their broadcasts in the hopes of attracting more viewers. A search for "Shiba Inu" (Ustream's most popular broadcast is the Shiba Inu puppy cam, with, as of May 2009, close to 15 million total page views) brought up only six results. There were two Shiba Inu cams, one eagle cam, a drawing program, a local news broadcast and a show about computers. A subsequent search for "Shiba Inu" returned identical numbers, but different content. The two Shiba cams were still there, but the results also included a comedy broadcast, a video-blog, a radio station, another local news broadcast and a mixed martial arts show.

If you're new to Ustream, your best option probably is to just click on a subcategory you're interested in and continue searching until you find what you're looking for. It might take a little while to find something you like, but once you do, it's easy to locate the program again. Just hit the blue "Follow" button above the broadcast window, and it will be stored under your community settings on the top of the screen. As long as you're logged in, you can easily sort through your favorite programs. Also, Ustream provides links to similar broadcasts, so once you've found something you like, it's easy to find other broadcasts you'll enjoy.


Broadcasting Live from Ustream


As long as you have a webcam and a reasonably fast Internet connection (a minimum upload speed of 320 kbps is recommended), all you need to do before kicking off your broadcasting career is to sign up for a free Ustream membership [source: Ustream]. Simply hit the "Sign Up" button on the homepage to get started. From there, you'll have to decide on a login name and password and choose whether you want to tie your new Ustream broadcasts to your Facebook page. Ustream also allows you to use your OpenID (a single username and password used for all your online identities) with your new account if you want to. You can even choose to import your email contacts and/or Twitter followers, which is great if you want an easily accessible list of people who might be interested in checking out your show.

If you want to get started right away, you can simply name your show and hit the "Broadcast Now" button. Then, all you have do is decide if want to broadcast immediately, broadcast and record, or record and broadcast later. Your other alternative is to head over to the "Save My Show" option, which will allow you to select the settings for your new endeavor. You can upload a show logo, choose your show's category and subcategory, enter a description and even create search tags so people can easily find your new program.

Your options don't end there, however. After you get past the basics, you'll have an array of tabs and options to choose from. You can change or refine just about any aspect of your new show, including everything from the size, color and font of your text in the "Design" tab to scheduling a specific time for your broadcast by selecting the "Schedule" tab. You can even adjust your audio quality and video resolution if your broadcast is jumpy or you're experiencing a lag. To make sure you don't get overwhelmed, Ustream also offers tips and tricks to help you select appropriate titles and categories to ensure that your show finds an audience.

One of the more important options is the ability to password-protect your broadcasts. If you're planning on becoming the next Internet celebrity, this option is probably not for you. However, if you're broadcasting a more private event, such as a wedding, you might want to limit who has access to the show. Colleges often use this option for online courses and student projects, giving students the ability to review professors' past lectures and critique each others' work, all while remaining in an isolated school environment [source: EDUCAUSE].

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